Richard Nixon - The 37th President of the United States - ETYNTK ❤️👤🔊✅


Richard Milhous Nixon January 9th 1913

April 22nd 1994 was the 37th President

of the United States serving from 1969

until 1974 when he resigned from office

the only u.s. president to do so he had

previously served as the 36th vice

president of the United States from 1953

to 1961 and prior to that as a US

Representative and also senator from


Nixon was born in Yorba Linda California

after completing his undergraduate

studies at Whittier College he graduated

from Duke University School of Law in

1937 and returned to California to

practice law he and his wife Pat moved

to Washington in 1942 to work for the

federal government he subsequently

served on active duty in the u.s. Navy

Reserve during World War two Nixon was

elected to the House of Representatives

in 1946 and to the Senate in 1950 his

pursuit of the his case established his

reputation as a leading anti-communist

and elevated him to national prominence

he was the running mate of Dwight D

Eisenhower the Republican Party

presidential nominee in the 1952

election Nixon served for eight years as

vice president becoming the

second-youngest vice president in

history at age 40 he waged an

unsuccessful presidential campaign in

1960 narrowly losing to John F Kennedy

and lost her race for governor of

California to Pat Brown in 1962 in 1968

he ran for the presidency again and was

elected defeating incumbent vice

president Hubert Humphrey

ended American involvement in the war in

Vietnam in 1973 and brought the American

pouce home and ended the military draft

Nixon's visit to China in 1972

eventually led to diplomatic relations

between the two nations and he initiated

date hunt and the anti-ballistic missile

treaty with the Soviet Union the same

year his administration generally

transferred power from Washington DC to

the States he imposed wage and price

controls for 90 days enforced disagree

Gatien of southern schools and

established the Environmental Protection

Agency Nixon also presided over the

Apollo 11 moon landing which signaled

the end of the moon race he was

reelected in one of the largest

electoral landslides in US history in

1972 when he defeated George McGovern in

his second term Nixon ordered an airlift

to resupply Israeli losses in the Yom

Kippur War resulting in the restart of

the Middle East peace process in an oil

crisis at home the Nixon administration

supported a coup in Chile that Elstad

the government of Salvador Allende and

propelled Augusto Pinochet to power by

late 1973 the Watergate scandal

escalated costing Nixon much of his

political support on August 9th 1974 he

resigned in the face of almost certain

impeachment and removal from office

after his resignation he was issued a

pardon by his successor Gerald Ford in

20 years of retirement Nixon wrote nine

books and undertook many foreign trips

helping to rehabilitate his image into

that of elder statesmen he suffered a

debilitating stroke on April 18th 1994

and died four days later at the age of

81 early life Richard Milhous Nixon was

born on january 9th 1913 in your Linda

California in a house that was built by

his father his parents were Hana

Millhouse Nixon and Francis a Nixon his

mother was a Quaker and his father

converted from Methodism to the Quaker

faith Nixon was a descendant of the

early American settler Thomas Cornell

who was also an ancestor of Ezra Cornell

the founder of Cornell University as

well as of Jimmy Carter and Bill Gates

Nixon's upbringing was marked by

evangelical Quaker observances of the

time such as refraining from alcohol

dancing and swearing Nixon had four

brothers Harold

1909 33 Donald 1914 87 Arthur 1918 25

and Edward born 1930 four of the five

Nixon boys were named after Kings who

had ruled in historical or legendary

Britain Richard

for example was named after Richard the


nixon's early life was marked by

hardship and he later quoted a saying of

Eisenhower to describe his boyhood we

were poor but the glory of it was we

didn't know it the Nixon family ranch

failed in 1922 and the family moved to

Whittier California

in an area with many Quakers Frank Nixon

opened a grocery store and gas station

Richards younger brother Arthur died in

1925 at the age of seven after a short

illness at the age of twelve a spot was

found on Richards lung and with the

family history of tuberculosis he was

forbidden to play sports

eventually the spot was found to be scar

tissue from an early bout of pneumonia

primary and secondary education young

richard attended East Whittier

Elementary School where he was president

of his eighth grade class his parents

believed that attending Whittier high

school had caused Richards older brother

Harold to live a dissolute lifestyle

before he fell ill of tuberculosis he

died of the disease in 1933 and so they

sent Richard to the larger Fullerton

Union High School he had to write a

school bus for an hour each way during

his freshman year and he received

excellent grades later he lived with an

aunt in Fullerton during the week he

played junior varsity football and

seldom missed a practice even though he

was rarely used in games he had greater

success as a debater winning a number of

championships and taking his only formal

tutelage in public speaking from

Fullerton's head of English H Lynn

Schiller Nixon later remembered shellers

words remember speaking his conversation

don't shout at people talk to them

converse with them Nixon stated that he

tried to use the conversational tone as

much as possible at the start of his

junior year beginning in September 1928

Richard's parents permitted him to

transfer to Whittier high school at

Whittier high

Nixon suffered his first electoral

defeat for student body president

he often rose at 4:00 a.m. to drive the

family truck into Los Angeles and

purchase vegetables at the market he

then drove to the store to wash and

display them before going to school

Harold had been diagnosed with

tuberculosis the previous year when

their mother took him to Arizona in the

hopes of improving his health the

demands on Richard increased causing him

to give up football nevertheless Richard

graduated from Whittier high third in

his class of 207 students collegiate and

law school education

Nixon was offered a tuition grant to

attend Harvard University but Harold's

continued illness and the need for their

mother to care for him meant Richard was

needed at the store he remained in his

hometown and attended Whittier College

his expenses there covered by a bequest

from his maternal grandfather Nixon

played for the basketball team he also

tried out for football but lacked the

size to play he remained on the team as

a substitute and was noted for his


instead of fraternities and sororities

Whittier had literary societies Nixon

was snubbed by the only one for men the

Franklin's many members of the

Franklin's were from prominent families

but Nixon was not he responded by

helping to found a new society the

orthogonal Society in addition to the

Society schoolwork and work at the store

Nixon found time for a large number of

extracurricular activities becoming a

champion debater and gaining a

reputation as a hard worker in 1933 he

became engaged to Olaf Florence Welch

daughter of the Whittier police chief

the two broke up in 1935

after his graduation from Whittier in

1934 Nixon received a full scholarship

to attend Duke University School of Law

the school was new and sought to attract

top students by offering scholarships it

paid high salaries to its professors

many of whom had national or

international reputations the number of

scholarships was greatly reduced for

second and third year students forcing

recipients into intense competition

Nixon not only kept his scholarship but

was elected president of the Duke Bar

Association inducted into the order of

the coif and graduated third in his

class in June 1937 early career and


you're graduating from Duke Nixon

initially hoped to join the Federal

Bureau of Investigation he received no

response to his letter of application

and learned years later that he had been


but his appointment had been cancelled

at the last minute due to budget cuts

instead he returned to California and

was admitted to the bar in 1937 he began

practicing with the law firm Wingert and

bewdley in Whittier working on

commercial litigation for local

petroleum companies and other corporate

matters as well as on wills in later


Nixon proudly stated that he was the

only modern president to have previously

worked as a practicing attorney Nixon

was reluctant to work on divorce cases

disliking Frank's sexual talk from women

in 1938 he opened up his own branch of

Wingert and bewdley in La Jolla

California and became a full partner in

the firm the following year in January

1938 Nixon was cast in the Whittier

community players production of The Dark

Tower there he plays opposite a high

school teacher named Thelma Pat Ryan

Nixon described it in his memoirs as the

case of love at first sight for Nixon

only as Pat Ryan turned down the young

lawyer several times before agreeing to

date him once they began their courtship

Ryan was reluctant to marry Nixon they

dated for two years before she assented

to his proposal they went in a small

ceremony on June 21st 1940 after a

honeymoon in Mexico the Nixons began

their married life in Whittier

had two daughters Trisha born 1946 and

Julie born 1948 World War two

in January 1942 the couple moved to

Washington DC where Nixon took a job at

the office of Price Administration in

his political campaigns Nixon would

suggest that this was his response to

Pearl Harbor but he had sought the

position throughout the latter part of

1941 both Nixon and his wife believed he

was limiting his prospects by remaining

in Whittier he was assigned to the tire

rationing division where he was tasked

with replying to correspondence

he did not enjoy the role and four

months later applied to join the United

States Navy as a birthright quaker he

could have claimed exemption from the

draft he might also have been deferred

because he worked in government service

but instead of exploiting his

circumstance Nixon sought a commission

in the Navy his application was

successful and he was appointed a

lieutenant junior grade in the US Naval

Reserve US Navy Reserve on June 15th

1942 in October 1942 he was assigned as

aide to the commander of the Naval Air

Station Ottumwa in Iowa until May 1943

on October 1st 1943 Nixon was promoted

to lieutenant seeking more excitement he

requested sea duty and was reassigned as

the naval passenger control officer for

the South Pacific combat Air Transport

Command supporting the logistics of

operations in the southwest Pacific

Theater he was the officer in charge of

the combat Air Transport Command at

Guadalcanal in the Solomon sand in March

1944 at Green Island Nissan Island just

north of Fugen Ville his unit prepared

manifests and flight plans for c-47

operations and supervise the loading and

unloading of the cargo aircraft for this

service he received a navy letter of

commendation awarded a navy commendation

ribbon which was later updated to the

Navy and Marine Corps Commendation Medal

from his commanding officer for

meritorious and efficient performance of

duty as officer in charge of the South

Pacific combat Air Transport Command

upon his return to the US Nixon was

appointed the administrative officer of

the Alameda Naval Air Station in

California in January 1945 he was

transferred to the Bureau of Aeronautics

Office in Philadelphia to help negotiate

the termination of war contracts and

received his second letter of

commendation from the secretary of the

Navy for meritorious service

tireless effort and devotion to duty

later Nixon was transferred to other

offices to work on contracts and finally

to Baltimore on October 3rd 1945 he was

promoted to lieutenant commander on

March 10th 1946 he was relieved of

active duty he resigned his commission

on New Year's Day 1946 on June 1st 1953

he was promoted to commander he retired

in the US Naval Reserve on June 6 1966

congressional career 1947 1953 House of


19:45 Republicans in California's 12th

congressional district frustrated by

their inability to defeat Democratic

congressman Jerry Voorhis sought a

consensus candidate who would run a

strong campaign against him they formed

a committee of 100 to decide on a

candidate hoping to avoid internal

dissensions which had led to Voorhis

victories after the committee failed to

attract higher profile candidates herman

parry Whittier Bank of America branch

manager suggested Nixon a family friend

with whom he had served on the Whittier

College Board of Trustees before the war

Perry wrote to Nixon in Baltimore after

a night of excited talk between the

Nixon's the naval officer responded to

Perry with enthusiasm

Nixon flew to California and was

selected by the committee when he left

the Navy at the start of 1946 Nixon and

his wife returned to Whittier where

Nixon began a year of intensive

campaigning he contended that Voorhis

had been ineffective as a congressman

and suggested that Voorhis is

endorsement by a group linked to

communists meant that Voorhis must have

radical views Nixon won the election

receiving 65,535

in Congress Nixon supported the

taft-hartley Act of 1947 a federal law

that monitors the activities and power

of labor unions and he served on the

Education and Labor Committee he was

part of the herder committee which went

to Europe to report on the need for u.s.

foreign aid

Nixon was the youngest member of the

committee and the only Westerner

advocacy vai heard her committee members

including Nixon led to congressional

passage of the Marshall Plan in his

memoirs Nixon recounts that he joined

the house on American Activities

Committee HUAC at the end of 1947

however he was already a HUAC member in

early February 1947 when he heard enemy

number one Gerhardt Easler and his

sister Ruth Fisher testify On February

18th 1947 Nixon referred to e slurs

belligerence toward HUAC in his maiden

speech to the house also by early

February 1947 fellow US representative

Charles J Kirsten had introduced him to

father John Francis Cronin in Baltimore

who shared with Nixon his 1945 privately

circulated paper the problem of American

communism in 1945 with much information

from the FBI's William C Sullivan who by

1961 would head domestic intelligence

under Hoover by May 1948 Nixon had

co-sponsored a menthe Nixon bill to

implement a new approach to the

complicated problem of internal

communist subversion it provided for

registration of all communist party

members and required a statement of the

source of all printed and broadcast

material issued by organizations that

were found to be communist fronts he

served as floor manager for the

Republican Party Vito Marcantonio served

as floor manager for the Democratic

Party on may 19th 1948 the bill passed

the House by 319 to 58 but failed to

pass the Senate

the Nixon Library cites this bill's

passage as Nixon's first significant

victory in Congress

Nixon first gained national attention in

August 1948 when as a HUAC member his

persistence helped break the Alger Hiss

spy case while many doubted Whittaker

Chambers allegations that hiss a former

State Department official had been a

Soviet spy Nixon believed them to be

true and pressed for the committee to

continue its investigation under suit

for defamation filed by his chambers

produced documents corroborating his


these included paper and microfilm

copies that chambers turned over to

house investigators after having hidden

them overnight in a field they became

known as the pumpkin papers hiss was

convicted of perjury in 1954 denying

under oath he had passed documents to

chambers in 1948 Nixon successfully

cross filed as a candidate in his

district winning both major party

primaries and was comfortably reelected


19:49 Nixon began to consider running

for the United States Senate against the

Democratic incumbent Sheridan Downey and

entered the race in November Downey

faced with a bitter primary battle with

representative Helen Gahagan Douglas

announced his retirement in March 1950

Nixon and Douglas won the primary

elections and engaged in a contentious

campaign in which the ongoing Korean War

was a major issue Nixon tried to focus

attention on Douglas liberal voting

record as part of that effort a pink

sheet was distributed by the Nixon

campaign suggesting that as Douglass

voting record was similar to that of New

York Congressman Vito Marcantonio

believed by some to be a communist their

political views must be nearly identical

Nixon won the election by almost 20

percentage points during this campaign

Nixon was first called tricky dick by

his opponents for his campaign tactics

in the Senate Nixon took a prominent

position in opposing global communism

traveling frequently and speaking out

against it he maintained friendly

relations with his fellow anti-communist

the controversial Wisconsin Senator

Joseph McCarthy but was careful to keep

some distance between himself and

McCarthy's allegations Nixon also

criticized President harry s truman

'he's handling of the korean war

he supported statehood for alaska and

hawaii voted in favor of civil rights

for minorities and supported federal

disaster relief for india and yugoslavia

he voted against price controls in other

monetary restrictions benefits for

illegal immigrants and public power

presidency 1953 1961 General Dwight D

Eisenhower was nominated for president

by the Republicans in 1952 he had no

strong preference for a vice

presidential candidate and Republican

officeholders and party officials met in

a smoke-filled room and recommended

Nixon to the general who agreed to the

Senators selection Nixon's youth he was

then 39 stance against communism and

political base in California one of the

largest states were all seen as vote

winners by the leaders among the

candidates considered along with Nixon

were Ohio Senator Robert a Taft New

Jersey governor Alfred Driscoll and

Illinois Senator Everett Dirksen on the

campaign trail

Eisenhower spoke to his plans for the

country leaving the negative campaigning

to his running mate in mid-september the

Republican ticket faced a major crisis

the media reported that Nixon had a

political fund maintained by his backers

which reimbursed him for political


such a fund was not illegal but it

exposed Nixon to allegations of possible

conflict of interest with pressure

building for Eisenhower to demand

Nixon's resignation from the ticket the

senator went on television to deliver an

address to the nation on September 23rd

1952 the address later termed the

checkers speech was heard by about 60

million Americans including the largest

television audience up to that point

Nixon emotionally defended himself

stating that the fund was not secret nor

had donors received special favors he

painted himself as a man of modest means

his wife had no mink coat instead she

wore a respectable Republican cloth coat

and a patriot the speech would be

remembered for the gift which Nixon had

received but which he would not give

back a little Cocker Spaniel dog sent

all the way from Texas and our little

girl Trisha

the six year old named it checkers the

speech prompted a huge public outpouring

of support for Nixon

Eisenhower decided to retain him on the

ticket which proved victorious in the

November election Eisenhower gave Nixon

responsibilities during his term as vice

president more than any previous Vice

President Nixon attended cabinet and

national security council meetings and

chaired them when Eisenhower was absent

a 1953 tour of the Far East succeeded in

increasing local goodwill toward the

United States and prompted Nixon to

appreciate the potential of the region

as an industrial center he visited

Saigon and Hanoi and French Indochina on

his return to the United States at the

end of 1953 Nixon increased the amount

of time he devoted to Foreign Relations

biographer Aaron Gelman who chronicled

Nixon's congressional years said of his

vice presidency

Eisenhower radically altered the role of

his running-mate by presenting him with

critical assignments in both foreign and

domestic affairs once he assumed his


the vice president welcomed the

president's initiatives and worked

energetically to accomplish White House

objectives because of the collaboration

between these two leaders Nixon deserves

the title the first modern vice

president despite intense campaigning by

Nixon who reprised his strong attacks on

the Democrats the Republicans lost

control of both houses of Congress in

the 1954 elections these losses caused

Nixon to contemplate leaving politics

once he had served out his term on

September 24th 1955 President Eisenhower

suffered a heart attack his condition

was initially believed to be

life-threatening Eisenhower was unable

to perform his duties for six weeks the

25th amendment to the United States

Constitution had not yet been proposed

and the Vice President had no formal

power to act nonetheless Nixon acted in

Eisenhower stead during this period

presiding over cabinet meetings and

ensuring that aides and cabinet officers

did not seek power according to Nixon

biographer Stephen Ambrose Nixon had

earned the high praise he received for

his conduct during the crisis he made no

attempt to seize power his spirits

buoyed Nixon sought a second term but

some of Eisenhower's aides aimed to

displace him

in a December 1955 meeting Eisenhower

proposed that Nixon not run for

re-election in order to give him

administrative experience before a 1960

presidential run and instead become a

cabinet officer in a second Eisenhower

administration Nixon believed such an

action would destroy his political

career when Eisenhower announced his

re-election bid in February 1956 he

hedged on the choice of his running mate

stating that it was improper to address

that question until he had been Rene 'td

although no Republican was opposing

Eisenhower Nixon received a substantial

number of write-in votes against the

president in the 1956 New Hampshire

primary election in late April the

president announced that Nixon would

again be his running mate Eisenhower and

Nixon were re-elected by a comfortable

margin in the November 1956 election in

early 1957 Nixon undertook another major

foreign trip this time to Africa on his

return he helped Shepherd the Civil

Rights Act of 1957 through Congress the

bill was weakened in the Senate and

civil rights leaders were divided over

whether Eisenhower should sign it

Nixon advised the President to sign the

bill which he did eisenhower suffered a

mild stroke in November 1957 and Nixon

gave a press conference assuring the

nation that the cabinet was functioning

well as a team during Eisenhower's brief

illness on April 27 1958 Richard and Pat

Nixon embarked on a goodwill tour of

South America in Montevideo Uruguay

Nixon made an impromptu visit to a

college campus where he fielded

questions from students on US foreign


the trip was uneventful until the Nixon

party reached Lima Peru where he was met

with student demonstrations Nixon went

to the campus got out of his car to

confront the students and stayed until

forced back into the car by a volley of

thrown objects at his hotel

Nixon faced another mob and one

demonstrator spat on him in Caracas


Nixon and his wife were spat on by

anti-american demonstrators in their

limousine was attacked by a pipe

wielding mob

according to Ambrose Nixon's courageous

conduct caused even some of his

bitterest enemies to give him some

grudging respect in July 1959 President

Eisenhower sent Nixon to the Soviet

Union for the opening of the American

National Exhibition in Moscow on July

24th while touring the exhibits with

Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev the two

stopped at a model of an American

kitchen and engaged in an impromptu

exchange about the merits of capitalism

versus communism that became known as

the kitchen debate 1960 and 1962

elections wilderness years in 1960 Nixon

launched his first campaign for

president of the United States he faced

little opposition in the Republican

primaries and chose former Massachusetts

senator Henry Cabot Lodge jr. as his

running mate his Democratic opponent was

John F Kennedy and the race remained

closed for the duration

Nixon campaigned on his experience but

Kennedy called for new blood and claimed

the Eisenhower Nixon administration had

allowed the Soviet Union to overtake the

US and ballistic missiles the missile

gap a new political medium was

introduced in the campaign televised

presidential debates in the first of

four such debates Nixon appeared pale

with a five o'clock shadow in contrast

to the photogenic Kennedy Nixon's

performance in the debate was perceived

to be mediocre in the visual medium of

television though many people listening

on the radio thought that Nixon had won

Nixon lost the election narrowly with

Kennedy ahead by only 112 thousand eight

hundred and twenty seven votes 0.2% in

the popular vote there were charges of

vote fraud in Texas and Illinois both

states won by Kennedy Nixon refused to

consider contesting the election feeling

a lengthy controversy would diminish the

United States in the eyes of the world

and the uncertainty would hurt US

interests at the end of his term of

office as vice president in January 1961

Nixon and his family returned to

California where he practiced law and

wrote a best-selling book six crises

which included coverage of the his case

Eisenhower's heart attack and the fund

crisis which had been resolved by the

checkers speech

local and national Republican leaders

encouraged Nixon to challenge incumbent

Pat Brown for governor of California in

the 1962 election despite initial

reluctance Nixon entered the race the

campaign was clouded by public suspicion

that Nixon viewed the office as a

stepping-stone for another presidential

run some opposition from the far right

of the party and his own lack of

interest in being California's governor

Nixon hoped that a successful run would

confirm him in his status as the

nation's leading active Republican

politician and ensure he remained a

major player in national politics

instead he lost to Brown by more than

five percentage points and the defeat

was widely believed to be the end of his

political career in an impromptu

concession speech the morning after the


Nixon blamed the media for favoring his

opponent saying you won't have Nixon to

kick around anymore because gentlemen

this is my last press conference

the California defeat was highlighted in

the November 11th 1962 episode of ABC's

Howard K Smith news and comment entitled

the political obituary of Richard M

Nixon Alger Hiss appeared on the program

and many members of the public

complained that it was unseemly to allow

a convicted felon air time to attack a

former vice president the furor drove

Smith and his program from the air and

public sympathy for Nixon grew the Nixon

family travelled to Europe in 1963 where

Nixon gave press conferences and met

with leaders of the countries he visited

the family moved to New York City where

Nixon became a senior partner in the

leading law firm Nixon much Rose Guthrie

and Alexander

Nixon had pledged when announcing his

California campaign not to run for

president in 1964 even if he had not he

believed it would be difficult to defeat

Kennedy or after his assassination

Kennedy's successor Lyndon Johnson

1964 he supported Arizona senator Barry

Goldwater for the Republican nomination

for president

when Goldwater was successful in gaining

the nomination Nixon was selected to

introduce the candidate to the

convention although he thought Goldwater

unlikely to win Nixon campaigned for him

loyally the election was a disaster for

the Republicans Goldwater's landslide

loss to Johnson was matched by heavy

losses for the party in Congress and

among state governors Nixon was one of

the few leading Republicans not blamed

for the disastrous results and he sought

to build on that in the 1966

congressional elections he campaigned

for many Republicans seeking to regain

seats lost in the Johnson landslide and

received credit for helping the

Republicans make major gains in the

midterm election 1968 presidential

election at the end of 1967 Nixon told

his family he planned to run for

president a second time although Pat

Nixon did not always enjoy public life

for example she had been embarrassed by

the need to reveal how little the family

owned in the checkers speech she was

supportive of her husband's ambitions

Nixon believed that with the democrats

torn over the issue of the vietnam war a

republican had a good chance of winning

although he expected the election to be

as close as in 1960

one of the most tumultuous primary

election seasons ever began as the Tet

Offensive was launched followed by the

withdrawal of President Johnson as a

candidate after doing unexpectedly

poorly in the New Hampshire primary it

concluded with the assassination of one

of the Democratic candidates

Senator Robert F Kennedy just moments

after his victory in the California

primary on the Republican side Nixon's

main opposition was Michigan Governor

George Romney though New York Governor

Nelson Rockefeller though Congress was

hostile to these ideas and enacted few

of them he eliminated the cabinet-level

United States Post Office Department

which in 1971 became the government-run

United States postal service Nixon was a

late convert to the conservation

movement environmental policy had not

been a significant issue in the 1968

election the candidates were rarely

asked for their views on the subject he

saw that the first Earth Day in April

1970 presaged a wave of voter interest

on the subject and sought to use that to

his benefit in June he announced the

formation of the Environmental

Protection Agency EPA

Nixon broke new ground by discussing

environment policy in his State of the

Union speech other initiatives supported

by Nixon included the Clean Air Act of

1970 and Occupational Safety and Health

Administration OSHA the National

Environmental Policy Act required

environmental impact statements for many

federal projects Nixon vetoed the Clean

Water Act of 1972 objecting not to the

policy goals of the legislation but to

the amount of money to be spent on them

which he deemed excessive after Congress

overrode his veto Nixon impounded the

funds he deemed unjustifiable in 1971

Nixon proposed health insurance reform a

private health insurance employer

mandate federalization of Medicaid for

poor families with dependent minor

children and support for health

maintenance organizations HMOs a limited

HMO bill was enacted in 1973 in 1974

Nixon proposed more comprehensive health

insurance reform a private health

insurance employer mandate and

replacement of Medicaid by state-run

health insurance plans available to all

with income based premiums and

cost-sharing concerned about the

prevalence of drug use both domestically

and among American soldiers in Vietnam

Nixon called for a war on drugs pledging

to cut off sources of supply abroad and

to increase funds for education and for

rehabilitation facilities as one policy

initiative Nixon called for more money

for sickle cell research treatment and

education in February 1971 and signed

the National sickle cell anemia Control

Act on May 16th 1972 while Nixon called

for increased spending on such

high-profile items as sickle cell

disease and for a war on cancer at the

same time he sought to reduce overall

spending at the National Institutes of


Civil Rights the Nixon presidency

witnessed the first large-scale

integration of public schools in the


Nixon sought a middle way between the

segregationist Wallace and Liberal

Democrats whose support of integration

was alienating some southern whites

hopeful of doing well in the South in

1972 he sought to dispose of

desegregation as a political issue

before then soon after his inauguration

he appointed vice president Agnew to

lead a task force which worked with

local leaders both white and black to

determine how to integrate local schools

Agnew had little interest in the work

and most of it was done by labor

secretary George Shultz federal aid was

available in a meeting with President

Nixon was a possible reward for

compliant committees by September 1970

less than 10 percent of black children

were attending segregated schools by

1971 however tensions over desegregation

surfaced in northern cities with angry

protests over the busing of children to

schools outside their neighborhood to

achieve racial balance Nixon opposed

busing personally but enforced court

orders requiring its use

addition to desegregating public schools

Nixon implemented the Philadelphia plan

in 1970 the first significant federal

affirmative action program he also

endorsed the Equal Rights Amendment

after it passed both houses of Congress

in 1972 and went to the States for

ratification Nixon had campaigned as an

era supporter in 1968 though feminists

criticized him for doing little to help

the era or their cause after his

election nevertheless he appointed more

women to administration positions than

Lyndon Johnson had space policy after a

nearly decade-long national effort the

United States won the race to land

astronauts on the moon on July 20th 1969

with the flight of Apollo 11

Nixon spoke with Neil Armstrong and Buzz

Aldrin during their moonwalk he called

the conversation the most historic phone

call ever made from the White House

Nixon was unwilling to keep funding for

the National Aeronautics and Space

Administration NASA at the high-level

scene during the 1960's as NASA prepared

to send men to the moon NASA

Administrator Thomas o Payne drew up

ambitious plans for the establishment of

a permanent base on the moon by the end

of the 1970s and the launch of a manned

expedition to Mars as early as 1981

Nixon rejected both proposals due to the

expense Nixon also canceled the Air

Force manned orbital laboratory program

in 1969 because unmanned spy satellites

were a more cost-effective way to

achieve the same reconnaissance

objective on March 7th

1970 Nixon announced the end of the

Kennedy Johnson eras massive efforts in

the space race stating we must think of

as part of a continuing process and not

as a series of separate leaps each

requiring a massive concentration of

energy we must also realize that space

expenditures must take their proper

place within a rigorous system of

national priorities

what we do in space from here on in must

become a normal and regular part of our

national life and must therefore be

planned in conjunction with all of the

other undertakings which are also

important to us

he then canceled the last three planned

of Hollow lunar missions to play Skylab

in orbit more efficiently and free money

up for the design and construction of

the Space Shuttle on May 24th 1972 Nixon

approved a five-year cooperative program

between NASA and the Soviet space

program culminating in the 1975 joint

mission of an American Apollo and Soviet

Soyuz spacecraft linking in space

re-election Watergate scandal and

resignation 1972 presidential campaign

Nixon believed his rise to power had

peaked at a moment of political

realignment the Democratic solid south

had long been a source of frustration to

Republican ambitions Goldwater had won

several southern states by opposing the

Civil Rights Act of 1964 but had

alienated more moderate southerners

Nixon's efforts to gain southern support

in 1968 were diluted by Wallace's

candidacy through his first term he

pursued a Southern Strategy with

policies such as his disaggregation

plans that would be broadly acceptable

among southern whites encouraging them

to realign with the Republicans in the

aftermath of the civil rights movement

he nominated two southern conservatives

Clement Haynesworth and G Herold

Carswell to the Supreme Court but

neither was confirmed by the Senate

Nixon entered his name on the New

Hampshire primary ballot on January 5th

1972 effectively announcing his

candidacy for re-election virtually

assured the Republican nomination the

president had initially expected his

Democratic opponent to be Massachusetts

Senator Ted Kennedy brother of the late

president but he was largely removed

from contention after the 1969

Chappaquiddick incident

instead Maine senator Edmund muskie

became the front-runner with South

Dakota senator George McGovern in a

close second place on June 10th McGovern

won the California primary and secured

the Democratic nomination the following


Nixon was Reno Minh eight idati 1972

Republican National Convention he

dismissed the Democratic platform as

cowardly and divisive McGovern intended

to sharply reduce defense spending and

supported amnesty for draft evaders as

well as abortion rights with some of his

supporters believed to be in favor of

drug legalization McGovern was perceived

as standing for amnesty abortion and

acid McGovern was also damaged by his

vacillating support for his original

running mate Missouri senator Thomas

Eagleton dumped from the ticket

following revelations that he had

received treatment for depression

Nixon was ahead in most polls for the

entire election cycle and was reelected

on November 7th 1972 in one of the

largest landslide election victories in

American history he defeated McGovern

with over 60% of the popular vote losing

only in Massachusetts in the District of

Columbia Watergate the term Watergate

has come to encompass an array of

clandestine and often illegal activities

undertaken by members of the Nixon

administration those activities included

dirty tricks or bugging the offices of

political opponents in the harassment of

activist groups and political figures

the activities were brought to light

after five men were caught breaking into

Democratic Party headquarters at the

Watergate complex in Washington DC on

June 17 1972 the Washington Post picked

up on the story

reporters Carl Bernstein and Bob

Woodward relied on an informant known as

deep throat later revealed to be mark

felt associate director at the FBI to

link the men to the Nixon administration

Nixon downplayed the scandal as mere

politics calling news articles biased

and misleading a series of revelations

made it clear that the committee to

re-elect President Nixon and later the

White House was involved in attempts to

sabotage the Democrats senior aides such

as white house counsel John Dean faced

prosecution in total 48th officials were

convicted of wrongdoing in July 1973

White House aide Alexander Butterfield

testified under oath to Congress that

Nixon had a secret taping system that

recorded his conversations and phone

calls in the Oval Office these tapes

were subpoenaed by Watergate Special

Counsel Archibald Cox Nixon provided

transcripts of the conversations but not

the actual tapes citing executive

privilege with the White House in Cox at

loggerheads Nixon had Cox fired in

October in the Saturday night massacre

he was replaced by Leon Jaworski in

November Nixon's lawyers revealed that

an audio tape of conversations held in

the White House on June 20th 1972

featured an eighteen 1/2 minute gap

rosemary woods the president's personal

secretary claimed responsibility for the

gap alleging that she had accidentally

wiped the section while transcribing the

tape though her tale was widely mocked

the gap while not conclusive proof of

wrongdoing by the president cast doubt

on Nixon's statement that he had been

unaware of the cover-up though Nixon

lost much popular support even from his

own party he rejected accusations of

wrongdoing and vowed to stay in office

he insisted that he had made mistakes

but had no prior knowledge of the

burglary did not break any laws and did

not learn of the cover up until early

1973 on October 10th 1973 vice president

Agnew resigned unrelated to Watergate

and was convicted on charges of bribery

tax evasion and money laundering during

his tenure as governor of Merrill

Nixon chose Gerald Ford minority leader

of the House of Representatives to

replace Agnew one researcher suggested

Nixon effectively disengaged from his

own administration after the swearing-in

of Gerald Ford as vice president on

December 6th 1973 on November 17th 1973

during a televised question-and-answer

session with the press Nixon said people

have got to know whether or not their

president is a crook well I'm not a

crook I've earned everything I've got

the legal battle over the tapes

continued through early 1974 and in

April 1974 Nixon announced the release

of 1,200 pages of transcripts of White

House conversations between him and his

aides the House Judiciary Committee

opened impeachment hearings against the

president on May 9th 1974 which were

televised on the major TV networks these

hearings culminated in votes for

impeachment on July 24th the Supreme

Court ruled unanimously that the full

tapes not just selected transcripts must

be released

the scandal grew to involve a slew of

additional allegations against the

president ranging from the improper use

of government agencies to accepting

gifts in office and his personal

finances and taxes Nixon repeatedly

stated his willingness to pay any

outstanding taxes due and paid four

hundred and sixty-five thousand dollar

in back taxes in 1974 even with support

diminished by the continuing series of

revelations Nixon hoped to fight the

charges however one of the new tapes

recorded soon after the break-in

demonstrated that Nixon had been told of

the White House connection to the

Watergate burglaries soon after they

took place and had approved plans to

thwart the investigation in a statement

accompanying the release of what became

known as the smoking gun tape on August

5th 1974 Nixon accepted blame for

misleading the country about when he had

been told of White House involvement

stating that he had a lapse of memory

Senate Minority Leader Hugh Scott

Senator Barry Goldwater and House

Minority Leader John Jacob Rhodes met

with Nixon soon after Rhodes told Nixon

that he faced certain impeachment in the

house Scott and Goldwater told the

president that he had at most only 15

votes in his favor in the Senate far

fewer than the 34 he needed to avoid

removal from office resignation in light

of his loss of political support and the

near certainty that he would be

impeached and removed Nixon resigned the

presidency on August 9th 1974 after

addressing the nation on television the

previous evening Nixon chose to resign

after realizing public opinion was not

in his favor to remain in office the

resignation speech was delivered from

the Oval Office and was carried live on

radio and television Nixon stated that

he was resigning for the good of the

country and asked the nation to support

the new president

Gerald Ford

Nixon went on to review the

accomplishments of his presidency

especially in foreign policy he defended

his record as president quoting from

Theodore Roosevelt's 1910 speech

citizenship in a republic sometimes I

have succeeded and sometimes I have

failed but always I have taken heart

from what Theodore Roosevelt once said

about the man in the arena whose face is

marred by dust and sweat and blood who

strives valiantly who airs and comes up

short again and again because there is

not effort without error and shortcoming

but who does actually strive to do the

deed who knows the great enthusiasms the

great devotions who spends himself in a

worthy cause Who at the best knows in

the end the triumph of high achievement

and who at the worst if he fails at

least fails while daring greatly Nixon's

speech received generally favorable

initial responses from Network

commentators with only roger mudd of CBS

stating that nixon had not admitted

wrongdoing it was termed a masterpiece

by Conrad black one of his biographers

black opined that what was intended to

be an unprecedented humiliation for any

American President Nixon converted into

a virtual parliamentary acknowledgment

of almost blameless insufficiency of

legislative support to continue he left

while devoting half his address to a

recitation of his accomplishments in

office later years and death pardon and


following his resignation the Nixons

flew to their home la casa Pacifica in

San Clemente California according to his

biographer Aitken after his resignation

Nixon was a soul in torment Congress had

funded Nixon's transition costs

including some salary expenses though

reducing the appropriation from eight

hundred and fifty thousand dollars to

two hundred thousand dollars with some

of his staff still with him Nixon was at

his desk by 7 a.m. with little to do his

former press secretary Ron Ziegler set

with him alone for hours each day

Nixon's resignation had not put an end

to the desire among many to see him

punished the Ford White House considered

a pardon of Nixon though it would be

unpopular in the country

Nixon contacted by Ford emissaries was

initially reluctant to accept the pardon

but then agreed to do so

Ford insisted on a statement of

contrition but Nixon felt he had not

committed any crimes and should not have

to issue such a document fort eventually

agreed and on September 8 1974 he

granted Nixon a full free and absolute

pardon which ended any possibility of an

indictment Nixon then released a


I was wrong in not acting more

decisively and more forthrightly in

dealing with Watergate particularly when

it reached the stage of judicial

proceedings and grew from a political

scandal into a national tragedy no words

can describe the depth of my regret and

pain at the anguish my mistakes over

Watergate have caused the nation and the

presidency a nation I so deeply loved

and an institution I so greatly respect

in October 1974 Nixon fell ill with

phlebitis the inflammation of the walls

of a vein told by his doctors that he

could either be operated on or died a

reluctant Nixon chose surgery and

President Ford visited him in the


Nixon was under subpoena for the trial

of three of his former aides Dean

Haldeman and John Ehrlichman in the

Washington Post

disbelieving his illness printed a

cartoon showing Nixon with a cast on the

wrong foot Judge John Sirica excused

Nixon's presence despite the defendants

objections Congress instructed Ford to

retain Nixon's presidential papers

beginning a three decade legal battle

over the documents that was eventually

won by the former president and his

estate Nixon was in the hospital when

the 1974 midterm elections were held and

Watergate and the pardon were

contributing factors to the Republican

loss of 43 seats in the house and three

in the Senate return to public life

in December 1974 Nixon began planning

his comeback despite the considerable

ill-will against him in the country he

wrote in his diary referring to himself

in Pat so be it we will see it through

we've had tough times before and we can

take the tougher ones that we will have

to go through now that is perhaps what

we were made for to be able to take

punishment beyond what anyone in this

office has had before particularly after

leaving office this is a test of

character and we must not fail the test

by early 1975 Nixon's health was

improving he maintained an office in a

Coast Guard Station 300 yards from his

home at first taking a golf cart and

later walking the route each day he

mainly worked on his memoirs he had

hoped to wait before writing his memoirs

the fact that his assets were being

eaten away by expenses and lawyer fees

compelled him to begin work quickly he

was handicapped in this work by the end

of his transition allowance in February

which compelled him to part with many of

his staff including Ziegler in August of

that year he met with British talk-show

host and producer David Frost who paid

him $600,000 equivalent to two million

seven hundred and thirty thousand dollar

in 2017 for a series of sit-down

interviews filmed and aired in 1977 they

began on the topic of foreign policy

recounting the leaders he had known but

the most remembered section of the

interviews was that on Watergate Nixon

admitted that he had let down the

country and that I brought myself down I

gave them a sword and they stuck it in

and they twisted it with relish

and I guess if I'd been in their

position I'd have done the same thing

the interviews garnered 4550 million

viewers becoming the most watched

program of their kind in television

history the interviews helped improve

Nixon's financial position at one point

in early 1975 he had only $500 in the

bank as did the sale of his key biscayne

property to a trust set up by wealthy

Nixon friends such as Bay Bay rebozo in

February 1976 Nixon visited China at the

personal invitation of Mao

Nixon had wanted to return to China but

chose to wait until after for its own

visit in 1975 Nixon remained neutral in

the close 1976 primary battle between

Ford and Reagan Ford won but was

defeated by Georgia governor Jimmy

Carter in the general election the

Carter Administration had little use for

Nixon and blocked his planned trip to

Australia causing the government of

Prime Minister Malcolm Fraser to

withhold its official invitation in 1976

Nixon was disbarred by the New York

State Bar Association for obstruction of

justice in the Watergate affair Nixon

chose not to present any defense in

early 1978 Nixon went to the United

Kingdom he was shunned by American

diplomats and by most ministers of the

James Callaghan government he was

welcomed however by the leader of the

Opposition Margaret Thatcher as well as

by former Prime Minister's Lord Holman

Sir Harold Wilson two other former Prime

Minister's Harold Macmillan and Edward

Heath declined to meet him

Nixon addressed the Oxford Union

regarding Watergate some people say I

didn't handle it properly and they're

right I screwed it up maiya Copa

to my achievements you will be here in

the year 2000 and we'll see how I'm

regarded then author and elder statesman

1978 Nixon published his memoirs

ahran the memoirs of Richard Nixon the

first of ten books he was to author in

his retirement the book was a

best-seller and attracted a generally

positive critical response Nixon visited

the White House in 1979 invited by

Carter for the state dinner for Chinese

vice premier Deng Xia Bing Carter had

not wanted to invite Nixon but Deng had

stated he would visit Nixon in

California if the former president was

not invited Nixon had a private meeting

with Deng and visited Beijing again in

mid 1979 on August 10th 1979 the Nixon's

purchased in New York City townhouse at

817 Fifth Avenue after being rejected by

to Manhattan coops when the former Shah

of Iran died in Egypt in July 1980 Nixon

defied the State Department which

intended to send no US Representative by

attending the funeral though Nixon had

no official credentials as a former

president he was seen as the American

presence at its former allies funeral

Nixon supported Ronald Reagan for

president in 1980 making television

appearances portraying himself as in

biographer Steven Ambrose's words the

senior statesman above the fray he wrote

guest articles for many publications

both during the campaign and after

Reagan's victory after 18 months in the

New York City Town House Nixon and his

wife moved in 1981 to Saddle River New


throughout the 1980s Nixon maintained an

ambitious schedule of speaking

engagements in writing traveled and met

with many foreign leaders especially

those of third world countries he joined

former presidents Ford and Carter as

representatives of the United States at

the funeral of Egyptian President Anwar

Sadat on a trip to the Middle East Nixon

made his views known regarding Saudi

Arabia and Libya which attracted

significant US media attention the

Washington Post ran stories on Nixon's

rehabilitation Nixon visited the Soviet

Union in 1986 and on his return sent

President Reagan a lengthy memorandum

containing foreign policy suggestions

and his personal impressions of Mikhail

Gorbachev following this trip Nixon was

ranked in a Gallup poll as one of the 10

most admired men in the world

in 1986 Nixon addressed a convention of

newspaper publishers impressing his

audience with his tour D horizon of the


at the time political pundit Elizabeth

drew wrote even when he was wrong

Nixon still showed that he knew a great

deal and had a capacious memory as well

as the capacity to speak with apparent

authority enough to impress people who

had little regard for him in earlier


Newsweek ran a story on Nixon's comeback

with the headline he's back on July 19th

1990 the Richard Nixon library and

birthplace in Yorba Linda California

opened as a private institution with the

Nixon's in attendance they were joined

by a large crowd of people including

presidents Ford Reagan and George HW

Bush as well as their wives Betty

Nancy and Barbara in January 1991 the

former president founded the Nixon

Center today the center for the national


a Washington policy think-tank and

conference center Pat Nixon died on June

22nd 1993 of emphysema and lung cancer

her funeral services were held on the

grounds of the Richard Nixon library and

birthplace former President Nixon was

distraught throughout the interment and

delivered a tribute to her inside the

library building death and funeral Nixon

suffered a severe stroke on April 18th

1994 while preparing to eat dinner in

his Park Ridge New Jersey home a blood

clot resulting from the atrial

fibrillation he had suffered for many

years had formed in his upper heart

broken off and traveled to his brain he

was taken to New York Hospital Cornell

Medical Center in Manhattan initially

alert but unable to speak or to move his

right arm or leg damage to the brain

caused swelling cerebral edema and Nixon

slipped into a deep coma

he died at 9:08 p.m. on April 22nd 1994

with his daughters at his bedside he was

81 years old

Nixon's funeral took place on April 27th

1994 in Yorba Linda California eulogists

at the Nixon Library ceremony included

President Bill Clinton former Secretary

of State Henry Kissinger Senate Minority

Leader Bob Dole California Governor Pete

Wilson and the Reverend Billy Graham

also in attendance were former

presidents Ford Carter Reagan George HW

Bush and their wives Richard Nixon was

buried beside his wife Pat on the

grounds of the Nixon Library he was

survived by his two daughters Tricia and

Julie and four grandchildren in keeping

with his wishes his funeral was not a

full state funeral though his body did

lie in repose in the Nixon Library Lobby

from April 26th to the morning of the

funeral service mourners waited in line

for up to eight hours in chilly wet

weather to pay their respects

at its peak the line to pass by Nixon's

casket was three miles long with an

estimated 42,000 people waiting John F

stacks of Time magazine said of Nixon

shortly after his death an outsize

energy and determination drove him on to

recover and rebuild after every self

created disaster that he faced to

reclaim a respected place in American

public life after his resignation he

kept traveling and thinking and talking

to the world's leaders and by the time

Bill Clinton came to the White House

Nixon had virtually cemented his role as

an elder statesman Clinton whose wife

served on the staff of the committee

that voted to impeach Nixon met openly

with him and regularly sought his advice

Tom wicker of the New York Times noted

that Nixon had been equaled only by

Franklin Roosevelt in being five times

nominated on a major party ticket and

quoting Nixon's 1962 farewell speech

wrote Richard Nixon's jolly beard

shadowed face the ski jump nose in the

widow's peak the arms up stretched in

the V sign had been so often pictured in

caricatured his presence had become such

a familiar one in the land he had been

so often in the heat of controversy that

it was hard to realize the nation really

would not have Nixon to kick around


Ambrose said of the reaction to Nixon's

death to everyone's amazement except his

he's our beloved elder statesman upon

Nixon's death almost all of the news

coverage mentioned Watergate but for the

most part the coverage was favorable to

the former president the Dallas Morning

News stated history ultimately should

show that despite his flaws he was one

of our most farsighted chief executives

this offended some columnist Russell

Baker complained of a group conspiracy

to grant him absolution cartoonist Jeff

Carter ba of the Omaha world-herald

depicted history before a blank canvas

his subject Nixon as America looks on

eagerly the artist urges his audience to


the work will take some time to complete

as this portrait is a little more

complicated than most hunter s thompson

wrote a scathing piece denouncing Nixon

for Rolling Stone entitled he was a

crook which also appeared a month later

in the Atlantic in his article Thompson

described Nixon as a political monster

straight out of Grendel and a very

dangerous enemy legacy historian and

political scientist James MacGregor

burns observed of Nixon how can one

evaluate such an idiosyncratic president

so brilliant and so morally lacking

Nixon's biographers disagree on how he

will be perceived by history according

to Ambrose Nixon wanted to be judged by

what he accomplished what he will be

remembered for is the nightmare he put

the country through in his second term

and for his resignation

Irwin Gelman who chronicled Nixon's

congressional career suggests that he

was remarkable among his congressional

peers a success story in a troubled era

one who steered a sensible

anti-communist course against the excess

of McCarthy Aitken feels that Nixon both

as a man and as a statesman has been

excessively maligned for his faults and

inadequately recognized for his virtues

yet even in a spirit of historical

revisionism no simple verdict is

possible Nixon's Southern Strategy is

credited by some historians as causing

the South to become a Republican

stronghold though others deem economic

factors more important to the change

throughout his career he was

instrumental in moving his party away

from the control of isolationists and as

a congressman was a persuasive advocate

of containing Soviet Communism according

to his biographer Herbert parmitt

Nixon's role was to steer the Republican

Party along a middle course somewhere

between the competitive impulses of the

Rockefellers the goldwater's and the


Nixon is given credit for his stance on

domestic affairs which resulted in the

passage and enforcement of environmental

and regulatory legislation historian

Paul Charles Milazzo in his 2011 paper

on Nixon and the environment points to

Nixon's creation of the EPA in his II

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