Who were the Assyrians? History of the Assyrian Empire

they created the largest empire the

world had ever seen

the first professional standing army in

history and were the first true masters

of siege warfare grinding the walls of

their enemies into dust and displacing

large populations at a whim the fury of

Assyria was the terror of their age the

city-state of Ashur named for the

warlike god of the same name was founded

nearly 2,000 years before the height of

the Assyrian Empire originally a

Sumerian settlement the city then became

dominated by the Akkadian Empire of

Sargon of Akkad whom the later Assyrians

viewed as their direct ancestors during

the following neo Sumerian Empire the

Syrians sporadically fell under their

influence although typically they

managed to maintain independence in the

beginning of the period known as the

Assyrian old Empire a stable line of

independent Kings allowed for Assyrian

merchants to develop lucrative trade

routes particularly with Anatolia where

they built permanent colonies that

operated for hundreds of years in Ashur

as well as with other nearby city states

such as Nineveh this newfound prosperity

led to large-scale public building

projects and relevance on the

international stage with the other major

powers of the day mari yum HOD Babylon

and the other city-states of southern

Mesopotamia one by one the ruling

dynasties of these states were replaced

by amirite warlords who had migrated

from near the plains and hill country of

south eastern syria originally described

by the Sumerians as a vile people who

ate raw meat and did not bury their dead

the hemorrhoids would one day be

regarded as the most culturally

sophisticated people of Mesopotamia

especially at Babylon sham Shia dot is

believed to have been one of these

warlords his ancestors were later

described as the kings who lived in

tents his father and then he had ruled

over the city of Mecca lot Amman the

Assyrian plain he fled to Babylon when

the king of eshnunna

conquered much of the Assyrian plain

when that King died seven years later

sham Shia dad returned and reconquered

at Gallatin and Ashur from ish noonah it

was during the reign of sham Shia Todd

that a coherent political unity was

established between the Assyrian

city-states and a strong national

identity rare for the time began to

evolve between them Shamshad conquered

territories going from fugitive to great

king of an empire not a humble man he

granted himself the title king of the

universe sham Shia Dodds kingdom of

Upper Mesopotamia would not last long

after his death being eclipsed by the

Empire of Hammurabi a Babylon in the

pages of history however his political

unification of Assyria as well as their

memory of being the heartland of a vast

empire would have a profound impact for

many centuries to come Babylon's power

declined after Hammurabi's death

although it remained the greatest power

in mesopotamia as to new people groups

the hurry ins and the cass i'ts

migrated into the region this largely

peaceful time period went up in flames

as the Hittites a people from central

Anatolia destroy the kingdom of Yom HUD

and sacked Babylon ending the amorite

dynasty of Hammurabi's descendants in a

campaign so rapid that no effective

resistance was organized this massive

power vacuum that the Hittites left


was filled by the Kassite who rebuilt

Babylon and the her ian's who united the

squabbling kingdoms together to form the

Empire of Mitani which came to dominate

upper Mesopotamia and rule over Assyria

for 200 years the Mitanni were a warlike

people whom the Assyrians learned much

from in the art of warfare and the

administration of a large Empire they

succumbed to internal infighting

allowing Assyria to gain independence

without a fight Pro Assyrian and Hittite

puppet kingdoms formed during the reign

of a dad nur re the Mitanni puppet

kingdom was annexed while achieving

major military victories against foes in

nearly every direction solidifying

Assyria as one of the great states

calling himself a great king equal to

the Pharaoh of Egypt the ruler of

Babylon and the Hittite Empire the older

great powers did not acknowledge the

upstart viewing him as a rebellious

vassal state that had achieved some

temporary success during the reign of

his son shaman s ur everyone would

acknowledge a syria's ascendancy after

defeating a coalition of Mitani rebels

Hittites and nomadic desert kings he

blinded 14400 captured prisoners of war

in one eye resettling them far from

their homelands in unfamiliar

territory making them less likely to

rebel which later became a standard a

Syrian practice for dealing with

rebellious populations often utilizing

this to move skilled labor where was

needed most shaman as her son to Colton

Anita expanded the Empire to its

greatest extent yet capturing Babylon

and taken to ancient title king of Sumer

and Akkad the first native Mesopotamian

to do so in many centuries seeking to

ensure Babylon secondary status he

demolished the walls of the city and

relocated the statue of their chief god

Marduk back to Assyria to Colton inert

Oh was as gifted a military strategist

as he was ruthless after campaigning

down the Arabian coast as far as

modern-day Bahrain he defeated the

Elamites who he believed plan to take

Babylon he then engaged in a brutal act

of sacrilege after a failed Babylonian

revolt massacring much of the city's

population while looting and defiling

the city's temples while Mesopotamia was

in shock to Colton inert has spent his

time writing an epic poem about himself

as well as building a new capital city

also named after himself his sons with

the backing of the Assyrian priesthood

besieged their father at his new capital

city where the unpopular King was

murdered babylon regained its

independence while assyria focused on

consolidating its borders as the old

bronze age empires to the west

contracted or fell while being subjected

to waves of invading Marauders known as

the sea people

babylon was conquered by the Elamites

followed by week local dynasties

becoming a third-rate power only Egypt

and Assyria would survive the Bronze Age

collapse great cities lay abandoned and

international diplomacy in trade all but

disappeared over the next 100 years

while most of the Near East was in a

dark age Assyria was the only major

power able to capitalize on the

collapsing world Babylon regrouped under

a native southern Mesopotamian dynasty

once again becoming a rival for us area

as Egypt evolved into squabbling

city-states several ruled by foreign

warlords Assyria further developed his

warrior culture making military service

compulsory for all adult citizen males

and began introducing iron weapons into


can file during the late middle assyrian

period a serious fine-tuned war machine

was not its only accomplishment during

this time the Assyrian King Asher Bell

kala built the world's first known

public Botanical Gardens and zoo where

he collected and bred many rare animals

including primates and crocodiles many

sent by the Egyptians seeking a curry

favour with this area for the remainder

of the middle period Assyria was

typically governed by competent but not

exceptional Kings who were content to

rule over the heavily militarized

Assyrian heartland while raiding their

immediate neighbours to keep them weak

Egypt reunified and two new peoples

migrated into Mesopotamia the Chaldeans

took Babylon in the south while pastoral

army and speaking tribes dominated the

north as they became dominant there a

Syrian refugees poured into the

heartland as many had been enslaved and

had their land seized by the newcomers

in response the Syrian King assured and

the second embarked on the first

campaigns of conquest in over a hundred

years taking and resettle in land with

Assyrians while deporting Arameans

assured ants meant spoils of his

conquests on infrastructure building

well built roads allowing armies to move

much quicker to the front and aqueducts

to increase farmable land and population

after a brief civil war ad a dinner re

ii took her throne following his

father's lead ad ad nur re ii continued

conquering and building aqueducts and

roads and perhaps more importantly he

began the practice of building massive

fortified administrative centres and

supply depots were large amounts of

grain and weapons were stored near the

frontier in every province ad ad nur re

ii see early campaigns set the standard

that all self-respecting Assyrian Kings

followed maintaining as their sacred

duty to wage yearly war his grandson

assured Azir pol ii greatly expanded the

Empire and built a new magnificent

capital city named Cal who also called

Nimrod a significant development during

his reign would be the unification of

the naree people into the kingdom of


which would be a longtime rival of

Assyria during the long reign of his son

shaman s or the third

Babylon was captured as well as much of

the urartu heartland around Lake van

following chowman aesir's death his son

defeated his brother in a four-year long

civil war as the Empire contracted he

was succeeded by his wife the only

female regent in Assyrian history Zamora

Matt reigned for five years until her

son came of age he conquered the Medes a

newly arrived people in the east after

his reign nearly forty years of internal

stagnation and instability ensued until

the reign of tiglath-pileser the third

perhaps the greatest king in Assyria's

history he not only constantly

campaigned effectively he instituted

numerous reforms instead of a few large

provinces administered by powerful

Nobles tiglath-pileser divided the

Empire up into over 80 small provinces

typically governed by a eunuch with no

descendants solely loyal to him he also

realized that despite a serious large

population they lacked the manpower to

match the Monarchs imperial ambitions to

solve this he created the first

professional national standing army in

history allowing anyone within the

Empire's borders to join now anyone

could become Assyrian as long as they

were willing to adopt the culture

worship the god asher and waged

perpetual war the ranks of the army

swelled with the adventurous and

ambitious in a new type of army that

could wage war year-round for the first

time in history siege engines and

cavalry became an integral part of the

army tiglath-pileser at the third was

followed by a century filled with

exceptional kings such as sargon ii

senator rube HR Hadden and Ashurbanipal

who expanded the Empire to its greatest

extent making it the largest empire in

history at that time a serious deserved

reputation for brutality extreme even by

the standards of the time made it many

enemies especially within its own

borders first Egypt successfully

rebelled and then an allied army of

Babylonians and Medes struck this Aryan

Heartland without warning Nineveh the

greatest city in the world at that time

went up in flames and over the next

three years

an empire seemingly at the height of its

power succumb to the vengeance of its

subjects and even though the Empire was

thoroughly too

droid the Syrians have survived to the

present day as a distinct people if you

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